The INFLUENCE of CULTURE ON EARLY DEVELOPMENT of the CHILD’s PERSONALITY
In the cultural environment is the formation of the personality that develops, and then, transmits its culture to succeeding generations. So, by their own laws and according to their cultural values live all ethnic groups on the planet, creating States Constitution and many other documents. Other cultures need to know and consider. Then there will be fewer misunderstandings, wars and conflicts between ethnic groups.
In this paper, we have focused on the influence of cultural environment on the formation and development of personality of a child up to 9 years. In childhood is the development of language, norms and values of culture. At this stage, the child absorbs the culture, watching her. Adults, using a system of punishments and rewards, limit its right of selection and assessment.
Culture has a profound influence on behavior, determining the socialization of children; how to dress and teach children what behavior is considered reasonable. Opportunities and the formation of the child’s behavior is determined by culture, even if this behavior is seen as determined by biological factors.
On the physical, intellectual, emotional and social growth of the individual culture in which it develops and lives, are affected to a different degree. There is a lot of evidence that the reflexes of the newborn do not depend on culture and forms of social organization. Not depends on the culture and ability of the children in the early stages of infancy to mimic the behavior
5) the Formation of knowledge, abilities and skills monitoring
the environment, the prevention and evaluation of emergency situations of technogenic and environmental-
their parents. Newborns in the United States, Switzerland, Nepal and other countries in response to facial expressions of adults to move their head to open and close your mouth, extend your tongue, mimic the movements of the fingers.
However at an older age on motor development of the child (crawling, walking) are influenced by culture. Researchers discovered a lot of cultural practices, acceleration (or deceleration) of the motor development of children. So, E. Erickson describes the custom of the Indians yurok encourage early crawling baby: from birth legs of the baby in the cradle remain open, and from the twelfth day of life, their grandma massages. Babies of some African tribes sooner than their peers from other cultures (for up to five weeks), take a sitting position, aided by special exercises done by adults.
Culture influences on emotional development of the child. Many researchers (M. Meade, A. Gardiner, I. Abel-Eibesfeldt) came to the conclusion that in those cultures where the predominant love of a child, when he grows up in an environment friendly and permissiveness personality is formed natured, gentle, and receptive adult.
Of particular interest of researchers causes emotional development of the infant, particularly the formation of his feelings of attachment to adults, as well as the emergence of attachment suggests that the process of socialization scored in full force. However, cultures differ in the understanding of what constitutes the ideal attachment. For example, German mother appreciate and encourage early independence. Japanese mothers rarely leave the baby alone or entrusted to the care of another person and forms the strong sense of dependence.
It can be concluded that attachment is a dynamic phenomenon, the study of which is only possible when taking into account the socio-cultural context.
Big impact culture has on social development. First glance can easily seem that the baby is exclusively an anti-social creature. He is deprived of human speech. His activity confined largely to the satisfaction of the elementary needs of life. It is much more an object than a subject, i.e. an active participant of social relations. With full biological helpless infant is unable to meet any of their vital needs. The most elementary and basic living needs of the baby can not be satisfied otherwise than by adults. The power and movement of the baby, even turning it over from side to side is carried out only in cooperation with adults. Everything in the behavior of the baby is permeated with social. It is due to the immaturity of all biological functions that will subsequently apply to the sphere of individual fixtures of the child and yourself, now can be performed only through the other, not otherwise, as in the situation of cooperation. Thus, the first child’s contact with reality is entirely socially mediated^].
The necessity of considering the influence of culture are obvious in the study of intellectual development of the child. For example, in studies of P. Desena conducted in different cultures, half canadian Inuit have decided on spatial skills at age 7, half Australian aboriginal tribe Aranda in 9 years. In contrast, when solving the problem on the conservation of fluid volume in the blood vessels of the results changed dramatically. Half of African children solved the task in 8 years, half of the huskies in 9 years. The obtained data confirmed the hypothesis P. Daisena about the relationship between meaningful from the point of view of a culture living conditions and cognitive skills of its members. Is the skills used by children from different cultures in daily life, influenced, at what age they started using a particular operation in solving problems of different types.
Thus, culture plays a crucial role in the development of child’s personality. The cultural environment that shapes the world, intelligence, physical, moral and spiritual development. The child learns to be a member of society, thanks to the love he identifies himself with members of his group and, thus, is preparing to adopt rules of conduct and laws of my community.