The problem of the development of thinking
According to piaget, development is carried out from the individual. to socialized, and the child is impervious to experience. Thinking is seen as a biological process, intelligence – as a further development of some fundamental biologist. har-K. as such characteristics and sod. functions of intelligence are highlighted organization and adaptation. Piaget describes adaptation as something that provides a balance between the influence of the organism on the environment (assimilation) and reverse the influence of environment (accommodation). One of the peculiarities of functioning of the person of intellect is that not all of the content received from the external world, can be digested (assimilated), and only that which at least approximately corresponds to the internal cognitive structure of the individual. In addition to teaching about the functions of intelligence, piaget develops the doctrine of stages of intellectual development: In the development of operational intelligence in children piaget distinguishes between the different stages:
1) article of sensorimotor intelligence. (0 to 2 years) har-Xia developing the ability REB. to perceive and to know the subjects are quite stable in their properties and attributes.
2) senior operational thinking (2 to 7 years). Formed speech, visualize and start-Xia active process of internalization of external actions with objects.
3). concrete operations (7 to 12 years)
4). formal operations (from 11-12 to 14-15 years). Characterized by the ability to operate with concepts and logical.reasoning.
The sequence expresses the inner law of development. Stage tied to a certain age. Education M. to speed up or slow down the development process. Atrogenes thinking: clearly-effective visual-figurative verbal-logical.
First. the existence of thinking is observed at the age from 1 till 3 years. The manifestation of the thinking expressed in the emergence of action the use between subjects to achieve the purpose. First knowledge, digestible a child is a community developed generalized ways of using objects. External indicative actions serve for the formation of internal, mental. So basically a type of thinking in early childhood – visual-active thinking. Of the Vedas. crazy. the function of early childhood – perception.
General line of development in the preschool years (3-7years): from solving problems that require the establishment of connections and relationships externally, to the solution of problems in the mind through images and basic intellectual action. This is the way the visual-active thinking to visual-figurative. In addition, in the activities of the preschool child are formed, the processes of generalization, classification, elements of mental simulation. During this period, improving the function of planning and control over their own intellectual actions. In preschool children are formed by the action of goal-setting. The main type of thinking at preschool age – visual-figurative thinking, formed a separate elem patients under stood conceptual thinking.
In the Junior school. the age of the Vedas. Diatto becomes doctrine. Mentally digested classification, comparison of analytical and synthetic activity, the actions of the simulation – i.e. predposylki formal-logical thinking + oomaeda the transition from empirical to theoretical thinking.
CP. Sch. adolescence ( from 9/10 to 14/15) is characterized by the restructuring of the motivational sphere, the intellectual sphere (developing theoretical thinking, professional focus of interest), the relationships with adults, verticali, personal sphere. New in the mindset of a teenager is in its relation to Intel. tasks as requiring their prior mental dismemberment. Spec. the quality of theoretical thinking – ability to think from the General to the particular. The originality of this level of development is also due to the fact that the subject of attention of a teenager become his own Intel. operations. T. O. is developing reflective thinking. All processes in adolescence are developing in the direction of intellectualization. One of the most important formation of youth (from 14/15 to 18) years at Intel. the sphere – formation of theoretical thinking, the foundations of which were laid in the earlier stages. Thinking starshell. and students active and independent. To 15, appear the foundations of hypothetical-deductive reasoning, the capacity for abstraction, formulation and processing of alternative hypotheses.
In adulthood increases the integrity of intelligence, expressed in the formation of his Hierarch. patterns. The emergence of this integrity is a perennial and controversial process in the cat. decisive role played by education and teaching, i.e., activities with a cat. there is assimilation ZUN. The development of intelligence, learning ability and self-education of adult people – power, anti-static and distribute. invols. processes.
Cognitive sphere in the period of old age (
60-65 years) is one of those that ageing has the greatest impact. This is due to organic. changes. By slowing transmission of nerve excitation, there was a reduction of the pace of thinking. However, ACC. compensation, therefore, these processes do not affect daily life. In the process of gerontogenes changing verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Non-verbal f-tion reduces its efficiency, and willows functions intensively progressing. This shows the confrontation rehabilitering intellectual functions common to the aging process. The continuation of the work. activities leading to the preservation of the thinking process.
The theory of ontogenetic development of the psyche in foreign psychology
Foreign theory of ontogenetic development of the psyche, extremely reputable and have had a considerable influence on the development of modern developmental psychology can be divided into two groups in accordance with their position in the decision of the Central problems of ontogenesis: what determines the development of more human — nature or nurture, i.e. factors related to heredity or due to the external environment. On the basis of position in solving this global problem, a number of influential foreign concepts of conditionally objedinili within the biogenetic approach to the assessment of driving forces and the source of psychic development in ontogenesis: giving priority to nature, they recognized heredity is the main determinant of development. Another group of theories that have United around the idea of recognition of the role of education and external environmental factors (mother’s behavior, living conditions, cultural factors) as the main elements underlying the formation behavior was attributed to the socio-genetic concepts of development.