Types of family education
The type of family upbringing – molecular, integrative characteristic of family relations, the relations of parents to parent debt, different kinds of value orientations, attitudes, emotional relationship to the child, level of parental competence.
The character of family education is largely the result of parental position. Typically, there are three criteria for evaluating the parent positions – adequacy, dynamic and predictability. The adequacy characterizes the orientation of the parents in the individual psychological characteristics of the child, his age lines, as well as a measure of awareness of these features. Dynamism is a measure of the mobility of the parent positions, variability of forms and methods of communication and interaction with the child (the perception of the child as an individual, the degree of flexibility of communication with the child in different situations, variability of forms and methods of influence on the child depending on age). Predictability – the ability of parents to predict the prospects of child development and restructuring of interaction with the child.
As the basis of classification of family education by type, and types are usually distinguished: the following specific parameters:
1) the degree of emotional acceptance of the child’s parents, the interest in it,
2) the degree of caring
4) consistency in the implementation of parenting style,
5) affective resistance of parents,
7) the nature of the control system in the family as a whole.
Types of families in the parameters
For each of these parameters we can distinguish several cases, having a differential value:
1 – acceptance / indifference / rejection
2 – concern / unconcern
3 permit type / permit / situational / restrictive
4 – consistency / inconsistency
5 – stability / instability
6 – anxiety / calmness
7 – authoritarian / democratic / ambivalent
As can be seen, theoretically can be up to 3*2*4*2*2*2*3=576 types of family upbringing. However, in real life, not all of these species occur equally often. During the various studies have identified the following eight most common types of family upbringing.
The education of the child is accompanied by coldness, sometimes – however – can be interrupted by periods utrirovannoe sympathy, attention and care from parents. Your emotions parents do not follow the emotions of the child, rather quickly and the child tucavaca to follow their emotions for parents. As a result he develops a poor emotional sphere, low self-esteem, the feeling of loneliness. Often these children find their way in their studies.
Often the cruelty is combined with emotional rejection. In such families often occur severe punishment for minor misconduct or disobedience. Cruelty can be not only physical but also psychological: the underlined indifference, a different kind of “curse”, psychological pressure, verbal aggression. Abuse often results in child aggression, a different kind of personality disorders.
Increased moral responsibility
Elevated levels of parental expectations for the present and future, success, skills, and talents of the child. The imposition of excessive and inappropriate age responsibilities. The expectation from the child what he sells them unfulfilled desires and aspirations. The predominance of the rational dimension in education: excessive moralizing and rigor, formality in the approach to the child, leading largely to asexual education and emotional opastnosti child, his inability to fit into emotionally charged, ambivalent situation.
The combination of different styles in the same family, not compatible with each other and not equivalent to each other, which manifests itself in open conflict, competition, and confrontation of family members. The result of such education can be high anxiety, insecurity, low unstable self-esteem of the child. The contradictions of education contributes to the development of the internal conflict in the child. Inconsistencies, contradictions give rise to the situation-specific nature of the child’s behavior, dishonesty.
Lack of care and control, the genuine interest and attention to the Affairs of the child. In the extreme form – neglect. Often in this type of education children early become independent. The obvious disadvantages: high risk of falling under the negative influence of strangers, nedonoshennosti.
One embodiment of hipoproductia – hidden gipoprotektsiya in which care and education adopts the highly formal nature (“for show”). Often the cause is hidden, hipoproductia is an emotional rejection.
Another option hipoproductia – conniving gipoprotektsiya is characterized by a combination of lack of parental supervision with uncritical attitude to disturbances in the child’s behavior and his evil deeds.
Another name is the Hyper. Increased custody and control of, an interest in the Affairs of the child takes painful character. Often the cause of hyperprotective is the status of the mother as a housewife, wants to assert himself as the “perfect mom”. Giperprotektsiya negative impact on the development of autonomy, initiative and the development of a sense of duty and responsibility of the child. Also cause of hyperprotective may be unrealized parents in need of affection and love.
Could be a number of motifs associated with negative feelings: concern for child’s future, fear of unhappiness with the child, fear of loneliness, low social status, the desire to dominate in all neurotic manifestations. The dominant hyperprotective – overprotection, meticulous control, complex continuous system of prohibitions and the inability for the child to take ever own decision. The basic idea of this type of education – “everything is forbidden that is not allowed”. Such intensity of educational activities rightly perceived by the child as a psychological pressure. Conniving giperprotektsiya – education of the type of “child – the idol of the family”. Characteristic features: excessive patronage, the desire to release the child from the slightest difficulty, to satisfy all his needs. The obvious consequence of such education – strengthening of egocentric tendencies of personality development, difficulty of formation of collectivism, selective assimilation of moral norms, low achievement motivation.
In this type of care, the disease acts as the focal point of family life. This usually occurs in families where the child for a long time suffered or suffer from chronic diseases. The result – the child’s self-esteem becomes inextricably linked with the disease. Everything that occurs around, the child refracts through the prism of the disease. Over time he gets used to put pressure on the pity of other people, dwell on the symptoms of his illness, he develops self-centeredness and inadequate level of claims.
Parents love the child, inspired by his interests. Try to treat it smoothly and fairly. Care about the initiative of the child, if the child is in a difficult or desperate situation – help. Parents are emotionally stable, calm, reasonable. The management style in the family is democratic. The voice of the child is taken into account when solving certain problems.